One of the most enigmatic sites on the planet is undoubtedly The Pyramids of Giza. For so long, big questions have surrounded the last surviving wonder of the world. How did they get there? And who created them? Well now, there may be some definitive answers…
The Pyramids of Giza are nothing short of an architectural phenomenon and have perplexed historians for thousands of years. However, a group of archeologists have found new evidence that has solved the mystery, once and for all…
Finding The Truth
The legends of Ancient Egypt have captured the imagination of millions over the years, with many people dedicating their lives to unearthing the truth of these mysterious pyramids. Many have theorized about how the magnificent structures came to be, with the three main arguments revolving around whether the blocks used to build them were lifted, rolled or dragged to their planned location. However, there was one specific group of people who had the most convincing theories of all…
Who Built Them?
Early Greek theorists thought that the Egyptians used slaves to construct the pyramids. This was a theory that many subscribed to for years. Historians such as Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus wrote detailed accounts of how the pyramids could have come to be. The former wrote an important book in 5th Century BC that illustrated how ahead of his time he really was…
The Most Reliable Information?
Although the historian Herodotus wrote his accounts of the construction of the pyramids over 1,600 years after they were built, they are still considered to this day some of the most reliable documents surrounding the topic. Despite the Egyptians having gathered information long after the era, it’s the most useful information known to date. However, over time, many critics have become more and more skeptical about his work, as they believe it only gives one side to a multifaceted story…
Best Of The Best
For a long time, many Egyptologists and historians have agreed on certain details about the historical context surrounding the construction. The general consensus is that it was the Pharaohs who ordered the structures to be built and that they hired the most respected architects and engineers of their time to oversee preparations. However, it was the slaves who were ordered to do the heavy labor. Another popular belief revolves around some of the construction techniques that were implemented…
Theorists have conflicting ideas about the circumstances in which the pyramids were built. But many share similar details, specifically some of the techniques that were believed to have been used by the builders. The main similarity is the idea that workers painstakingly carved boulders with copper chisels. Then, the final product was dragged and lifted as the overseer saw fit. However, is there any possibility that it wasn’t actually the Egyptians? Could it have been somebody else who built them?
Aliens Built The Pyramids?
Although it’s outside the box, many speculators genuinely believe it’s possible that extraterrestrials had a part to play in the construction of the Pyramids of Giza. Some of the reasons behind this include the eerily accurate alignment the structures have with Orion’s Belt. Also, the pyramids are in much better condition than many of those that were built hundreds of years later. However, who’s to say that another group of humans weren’t responsible for their construction?
Early signs of who may have constructed the pyramids can be traced back to Biblical times. In the book of Exodus, the Israelites were enslaved in Egypt. Although this suggests that the Hebrews may have been ordered to build the pyramids for the Egyptians, historians will be quick to address this misconception. According to most archeological research, the Giza pyramids were built around 2580BC. The Israelites, however, weren’t slaves until the 13th Century BCE. The numbers simply don’t line up…
Secrets Of The Sphinx
Although a staggering amount of evidence suggests that it was the Egyptians who built the pyramids, there are some signs that they actually could’ve been built long before the time of the Pharaohs. Gerry Cannon and Malcolm Hutton believe that the Sphinx must have been carved out of natural rock. “You can’t carve a rock when it’s under sand,” Cannon said. “When it was not under sand was about 12,000 years ago and the Egyptians weren’t there.”
Was It Really The Egyptians?
This could imply that the ancient structures are much older than archeologists originally anticipated and that an earlier civilization may have constructed the pyramids. “Nobody knows who was there 12,000 years ago,” Cannon said. “It had to have been done by a civilization that was more advanced than any of us.” Naturally, Egyptian authorities were quick to shoot down the pair’s wild theory. However, this doesn’t mean that there are some more logical theories in circulation…
Pyramid Of Power
One of the most respected Egyptologists of his generation, Miroslav Verner, theorized that a hierarchy must’ve been put in place to create the pyramids. He believed that it probably took over 100,000 men, who were divided into a variety of teams with different purposes, and then more divisions related to individual skills. The theory implied that, in a way, those who constructed the pyramids had roles that were organized in the style of a pyramid. But there was more to the intricacies of the Egyptian operation…
Another Egyptologist by the name of John Romer believes meticulous planning went into the construction of the pyramids, to the point that the builders probably laid out an actual life-sized scale plan. “Such a working diagram would also serve to generate the architecture of the pyramid with precision unmatched by any other means,” he said. Romer also estimated that it probably took them 14 years from start to finish. However, there’s another man who took the investigation to the next level…
In the modern era, one of the most important people in the search for the truth behind the pyramids is a modest man by the name of Mark Lehner. With his team, the seasoned Egyptologist put together one of the most detailed studies ever made, with some fascinating new theories. Lehner believes that the number of people involved with construction was more like somewhere between 14,500 and 40,000. But Lehner didn’t realize just how important his role in the search would become…
The catalyst that kickstarted this well of evidence came back in 1954, when archeologist Kamal el-Mallakh led a team and discovered a boat that they believed would have been left for Pharaoh Khufu to use. The remains of the boat, including wooden planks, were restored and scanned to determine their origins. The results showed that they had been sewn together. But what exactly was the purpose of this ship? Was it simply to sail down the Nile? Or was it for something more?
Sailing To Heaven?
Servants sealed the ship in 2500 B.C. in a pit at the complex of the Great Pyramid. This was so that Pharaoh Khufu could access it in the afterlife and use the necessary tools and grave goods. Although this is not confirmed, the vessel is referred to as a “solar barge,” a ship designed to take the resurrected king on his eternal journey with Ra, the Sun God. However, most theorists consider the following to be the reason…
Down To Earth
Seeing that the signs indicate that the ship had already been submerged in water, theorists believe that the ship was already used to escort the king’s mummified body to his place of rest. Or, Khufu used the ship while he was still alive as a mode of transportation to holy sites. Whatever the reason might be, the Khufu ship is regarded as one of the most important discoveries in the history of Egyptology. But recent developments have changed everything…
Why Were The Pyramids Built?
Why was the Great Pyramid, this stunning engineering marvel built in the first place? What purpose could it possibly fulfill? According to Egyptologists, builders spent up to two decades building the structure as a tomb, specifically for Pharaoh Khufu. As for the three small pyramids in front of it, they are speculated to have been built for Khufu’s three wives. However, recent discoveries have presented more explanations as to what the purpose of the pyramid may have been…
One fascinating truth that has recently been revealed about the Great Pyramid is actually inside the ominous structure. After intensive scanning sessions, scientists recently found a mysterious void deep inside the pyramid. Above the Queen’s chamber stands a chasm stretching 30 meters that looks like some sort of transportation system – a corridor, if you will. Although it is still unclear what the exact purpose of the void was, there are some theories as to what the void may have been designed for…
The Great Pyramid actually has a very sophisticated interior to it. As of today, there are believed to be three recognized chambers in it. The lowest one built within its bedrock. Then, you have the Queen’s and King’s chambers, which were built higher up. Then you have the exterior complex that speaks for itself. Giza includes two mortuary temples that were intended to honor Khufu, while there’s also a “satellite” pyramid, as well as a set of tombs surrounding it.
Power Of The Nile
You may think that the main reason that the Pyramids of Giza were built so close to the Nile was because of it makes sense for any civilization to be close to a water source. However, it is believed that there was actually a much more spiritual reasoning behind its location. The Pyramids of Giza are located on the west bank of the Nile because it is exactly where the sun sets. This was supposed to symbolize the realm of the dead.
Cooler On The Inside
It’s undeniable how ahead of their time the Egyptians actually were. This can be seen in two aspects of the construction. Firstly, it was discovered that the structures were built with a ball and socket mechanism in order to avoid damage from earthquakes. Secondly, the Pyramids were constructed in such a neat way, that even though the harsh arid heat would beat on Egyptian structures, the inside of pyramids had a temperature that remained a cool 20 degrees Celsius.
What Came First?
There is a granite coffer inside the main chamber of the Great Pyramid. What seems at first to be a completely normal feature of this kind of structure, becomes something extraordinary. The reality is that the coffer is a finely carved piece of granite. There was no way that the Egyptians could fit the large piece through the passageway. This suggests that the Great Pyramid was potentially built around the coffer rather than the other way round.
One of the biggest mysteries surrounding the Great Pyramid is the mortar that was used to “glue” the blocks together. The truth is that to this day, no archeologist has been able to trace the origins of this mortar or the material that was used to make it. The only thing that researchers do know about it is its chemical composition. However, they have been unable to reproduce the composition. However, it is believed to be harder than the actual stone.
Two of the most common theories surrounding this peculiar void are on completely opposing ends of the spectrum. The first theory is mundane in its nature, suggesting that the void acted as a “construction gap,” acting as a platform for builders to proceed through to get from one part of the construction to another. However, another theory suggests that it was the partition path between the King’s chamber and the Queen’s chamber. And this could suggest something else…
Symbol Of Power
It is clear that the Great Pyramid was a blatant expression of power. The 13-acre wide base and its 479 feet height, as well as its 2.3 million limestone blocks, make up one of the most ostentatious displays of wealth in the entire history of mankind. “These sorts of pyramids are the major product, so to speak, of the kings who built them,” archeologist Kate Spence said. And it’s not just the people of Ancient Egypt who were in awe of these magnificent structures…
One way or another, there seems to be hardly anyone who can resist the allure of the Pyramids of Giza. Most people fit into one of two categories: either you’re a qualified Egyptologist determined to unlock the truths of these mysterious structures, or you have Egypt on your bucket list, mainly to visit Giza. Without a shadow of a doubt, The Great Pyramid of Giza is the biggest reason that Egypt is able to attract over 5 million visitors per year.
The Last Wonder?
If the Great Pyramid of Giza is the last surviving member of the Seven Wonders of the World, what were the others? And what happened to them? According to many historians, the other six wonders consist of The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Temple of Artemis, the Olympic Statue of Zeus, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, Colossus of Rhodes and the Lighthouse of Alexandria. But did archeologists finally unravel the secrets of the last wonder of the world?
Throne From Space?
A professor from Milan Polytechnic believes that a throne carved from a meteorite is stored deep inside a secret chamber in the Great Pyramid. Ever since King Tut’s dagger was discovered in 1922, it is well documented that the Ancient Egyptians used meteoric iron. “In these texts it is said that the pharaoh, before reaching the stars of the north, will have to pass the ‘gates of the sky’ and sit on his ‘throne of iron’,” Giulio Magli said.
Pyramids In Pop
The Pyramids have captured the imaginations of millions and have inspired many artists to use them in their work over a variety of platforms. Many movies have used the Pyramids as a backdrop for some of the most iconic scenes in cinema. These include flicks such as The Mummy, Raiders of the Lost Ark, and Stargate, to name a few. Then there was the animated musical The Prince of Egypt, which heavily revolved around the times of Ancient Egypt from the perspective of The Bible.
Be Our Guest
One of the most recent developments has cast a new light on the overall culture of Ancient Egypt. Researchers from Universtiy College London have evidence to suggest that the Egyptians would only enter the pyramids if they had guests. “Recently unearthed papyrus rolls dating from 2400 B.C. confirm that most Egyptians of the time went to the pyramids of Giza once as a kid and thought they were pretty cool, but seldom returned to the majestic tombs unless they had a buddy visiting who had never been there before,” professor Sidney Colliver said.
Grand Theft Pharoah
One of the misfortunes that has prevented egyptologists from getting a complete picture of what it was like to live during the times of the Pyramids was the historical illegal activity surrounding them. According to authors such as Briar and Hobbs, “all the pyramids were robbed” by the New Kingdom. It is also believed that stone that acted as a slope to the foundations of the Great Pyramid was taken at some point. Towards the end of the Old Kingdom, numerous robbers broke in.
Man With A Plan
Mark Lehner has made many discoveries related to the Pyramids. His team found a workers town known by the archeological community as “The Lost City.” He also found what appears to originally have been a port nearby. This sheds light on the possibility that the region was much more integral to the masses than previously anticipated. Lehner also believes that pyramid workers may have lived on ramps that they used for construction, which they would park nearby the site.
Discovery Of The Century
In 2013, a truly remarkable discovery was made when an ancient papyrus was discovered in a cave in Wadi al-Jarf. They are officially the oldest of its kind ever found, dating back to just over 4,500 years ago. The text riddled with hieroglyphics revealed details about the construction of the pyramids that archeologists and historians have merely speculated beforehand. Now they had substantial evidence that confirmed an age long mystery. So who was it that unearthed this game-changing artifact?
The person who made the shocking discovery was Pierre Tallet. After finding the ancient papyrus, he spent nearly half a decade deciphering the hieroglyphics, working out exactly what was written on it. “Since the very day of the discovery, it was quite evident that we have the oldest papyrus ever found in the world,” he said. Tallet knew he had changed the face of Egyptology with his stunning find. So what exactly was the truth behind this incredible artifact?
The Diary Of Merer
An ancient Egyptian by the name of Merer wrote an intricate text detailing how the Egyptian workforce behind the Great Pyramid consisted of a staggering number of skilled engineers. These workers used boats to transport over 170,000 tons of limestone down the river Nile from Tura to Giza. For the first time in history, Egyptologists finally had a first-hand written account. But there’s one more staggering detail that makes this engineering marvel even more impressive than it already was…
Man Made Canals
Another amazing thing that Merer wrote about was an intricate canal system. The engineers of the pyramids constructed the series of canals in order to make the transportation of materials as quick and efficient as possible. These canals directly connected from the Nile to the area that the pyramids were built on. But where exactly did the materials come from? Not only did Merer paint a clear picture of the construction techniques, he also revealed the important figures behind the project…
The Pharoah & The Vizier
One of the most fascinating things about the Diary of Merer is that it revealed a lot of important information surrounding the reign of the king (2,600 B.C.), Pharaoh Khufu. His half-brother, “the noble Ankh-haf” was also his Vizier and is confirmed to have overseen the construction of the Great Pyramid. The text suggests that it was Khufu himself who instructed engineers to adorn the Pyramid, his soon-to-be tomb, with Tura limestone. But it was somebody else who helped to realize Tallet’s dream…
Most Recent Development
It was Mark Lehner who put the finishing touches to this indirect, collaborative effort. Lehner and his team discovered the lost waterway in Giza that only adds credence to the details in the Diary of Merer. “We’ve outlined the central canal basin which we think was the primary delivery area to the foot of the Giza Plateau,” he said. Now, with the Diary of Merer, the Khufu ship and now the lost waterway, researchers have three key sources of evidence to prove the Pyramids’ origins.
The Undisputed Truth
Therefore, Tallet, Lehner and the rest were able to verify a list of important facts that were merely hearsay for hundreds of years. The most important fact is that the Diary Of Merer confirms that the boats and canals had an integral part to play in the construction of the Pyramids of Giza. Also, the structure’s two most important materials, granite and limestone, were brought from Aswan and Tura, respectively. What do these details mean though for the future of Egyptology?
The Future Of Egyptology
The three separate findings are heavily connected and seem to have added a new layer of meaning to the theories that Egyptologists like Herodotus, Gerry Cannon, and Miroslav Verner have come up with over the years. Despite these groundbreaking discoveries, the search for the hidden truths about Ancient Egypt will continue. However, it seems like the some of the deepest secrets about the Great Pyramids have finally be unlocked, inspiring archeologists to double their efforts and unearth the next huge breakthrough in Egyptology.